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Centennial history of 
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lT\d.ia.naioolis er>te' 
* • • CelelDir a^ ion 

Program Centennial Celebratioi 

Saturday Evening, June 5th. — Mass meeting Tomlinson Hall. 

Sunday, June 6th. — Centennial service in churches. Sunday aft 
noon and evening, Centennial chorus, 400 voices, accompanied 
Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra Coliseum Fair Grounds. It 
also planned to have community singing at Monument Place 
vesper time Sunday evening. ' 

Monday Evening, June 7th. — Centennial parade, downtown strep 

Tuesday Evening, June 8th. — Centennial pageant at Coliseum F; 

Grounds. { 

Wednesday Evening, June 9th. — Water carnival at Riverside Pa, 

Note. — During entire period of Centennial Celebration curios, art jj 
relics relative to the last hundred years in Indianapolis' hist-j 
will be displayed at the State House and the Herron Art Institu 


John H. Holliday, Chaiy'man Executive Committee. 

Aquilla Q. Jones, Vice-Chairman. 

Julia Belle Tutewiler, Recording Secretary. 

Harry G. Hill, Executive Secretary. 

L. V. Schneider, Assistant Executive Secretary. 

Chairmen of Committees 

John H. Holliday. 

HISTORY— Jacob P. Dunn. 
Laura Fletcher Hodges, act- 
ing chairman. 

SCHOOLS— Clarence E. Crip- 

CHURCHES— Rev. C. H. Win- 

MUSIC— Edward B. Birge. 

PARADE— Bert A. Boyd. 

PAGEANT— Har/y D. Ta 
wiler, ■ 

WAT ^^L— Wallace 


'^ 's H. Lowry. 

.ICS — Anne 

MILITARY— Gen. Harry 

Maude Lucas Rumpler. 


TRADES— John Geckler. 

TIONS— Frederick M. I- 

SIGNS— Paul Richey. v 

PROGRAM— Clarence E. ' 
pin. :<; 

BUDGET— Fred Millis. \ 

FINANCE— Fred Hoke. . 

Q. Jones. 



HISTORY OF ^ ^Ci ^ ^^ 














g 1920 



,u.v.c v;*'*'^ 

History Committee 

JACOB P. DUNN, Chairman 









Copyrighted by M. R. Hyman, 1920 

MAX R. HYMAN, Publisher 

Printed by Bookwalter-Ball Printing Co. 

Photographs by W. H. Bass Photo Co- 






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Ralston's Plat, 1821. 




by law for three commissioners to "lay out a town," and advertise the 
sale of lots; also an agent to attend to the business of selling the lots, 
and collect the payments, the purchase money to be used in "erecting the 
necessary public buildings of the State." On the same day. General John 
Carr was elected agent and Christopher Harrison, James W. Jones and 
Samuel P. Booker were elected commissioners to lay out the town. 

By the same law the new capital was named; and this caused more discussion 
than all the other features combined. Some wanted an Indian name, and 
"Teclimseh" was specially favored. Others wanted a high-sounding European 
name, and favored "Suwarrow." They finally agreed on "Indianapolis," 
which Judge Jeremiah Sullivan publicly claimed to have been originated 
by him. It has also been claimed that Samuel Merrill originated the name, but 
if so, he never made public claim to it. 

The commissioners were directed to meet at Indianapolis on the first 
Monday in April, 1821; but only Christopher Harrison appeared, and he 
proceeded to perform the duties of the commission. He employed as sur- 
veyors Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham, and they formed a 
notable group. Harrison had been the first Lieutenant-Governor of Indiana. 
He was a man of artistic tastes, and for seven years after coming to Indiana, 
in 1808, had lived a hermit in a cabin on a bluff overlooking the Ohio River. 
Tradition says that this was because he had been jilted by Elizabeth Patter- 
son, who married Jerome Bonaparte, younger brother of Napoleon. Ralston 
was a Scotchman, of some prominence as an engineer. He had assisted 
Major L'Enfant in laying out the City of Washington and had surveyed an 
estate in Arkansas for Aaron Burr, on account of which he was sometimes 
suspected of being implicated in Burr's conspiracy. Fordham was an Eng- 
lishman, who came over with Birkbeck's Illinois colony, and who had studied 
engineering under George Stephenson, the inventor of the steam locomotive. 

Plan of the City. Indianapolis, as then planned, included only what is 
now known as "the original mile square," i. e. the part of the city bounded 
by North, South, East and West streets. These streets, however, were not 
included in the plat, but were added later at the suggestion of "Uncle 
Jimmy" Blake, who argued that "fifty years later they would make a fine 
four mile drive around the city." The streets in the plat were as at 
present, except in the southeastern portion, where the regular squares were 
broken by two diagonal streets— North Carolina and South Carolina— running 
from Meridian to East street, and bounding the valley of Pogue's Run. as it 
then existed. The original street names have not been changed, except 
that in 1895 Mississippi street was changed to Senate avenue, and Tennessee 
street to Capitol avenue. Originally there were no alleys in the squares 
cut by the four diagonal avenues, and none of the alleys were named until 
1831. At that time names were given to several of them which have since 
been changed. For example, what is now Pearl street was called "Cumber- 
land;" Court street was "Potomac." and Adelaide was "Choptank." 

In the center of the plat was the Governor's Circle, now Monument Place, 
which was reserved for a mansion for the Governor, and a brick building, 
about 50 feet square, was erected there in 1827, but it was never finished as 
a residence, and was used only for various public offices. It was torn down 
in 1857, and the material used in the building now standing at the southeast 
corner of Illinois and Market streets. Three of the squares cut by the 
diagonal avenues— those shaded on the plat — were reserved "for religious 
purposes," but were never put to such uses. They were dropped in 1831, 
when a new survey was made covering the entire donation. Where Indian- 
apolis streets cross the lines of the donation it may be noticed that there 



South Side of Washington St., looking East from Pennsylvania to Delaware St., 1854. 

Same View. 



is a slight cliange in the direction of the street. This is due to the fact 
that in the surveys for the town plat no allowance was made for the 
variation of the magnetic needle, while in the United States survej's. outside 
of the donation lines, the true meridian is followed. The original Indian- 
apolis streets bear about two and one-half degrees east of north, and south 
of east. 

Sale of I^ots. The sale of lots was advertised for the second Monday in 
October, 1821, but only one lot was sold on that day, the sale continuing 
through the week. At that time there were three "taverns" in Indianapolis, 
iu addition to McCormick's. Matthias R. Nowland had one "on the west 
bank of the ravine" (the line of Missouri street) between Washington and 
Maryland streets ; and here the sale of lots was held. ]\Iajor Thomas Carter 
had established The Rosebush Tavern on the north side of Washington street 
east of Illinois. John Hawkins had opened The Eagle Tavern on the north 
side of Washington street between Meridian and Pennsylvania streets. All 
of these, as well as private residences, were filled with people who came 
to the sale, and many others camped out. Notwithstanding the crowd, many 
carrying money, there was no robbery or disturbance of any kind. 

The highest price received for a lot was $560. It was the one at the north- 
west corner of Delaware and Washington streets. The next highest was 
$500, for the one at the northwest corner of Senate and Washington streets. 
The third was $^50 for the one at the northeast corner of Capitol and Wash- 
ington. Most of the lots on Washington street between the State House 
and the Court House brought $200 to .$300 each. The one at the southeast 
corner of Illinois and Washington brought $325. In all. 314 lots were sold 
for a total of $35,596.25, of which $7,119.25 was paid in cash. But 161 of 
these lots were afterwards forfeited for failure to meet the deferred pay- 
ments, and the total receipts for lots up to 1831 was less than $35,000. In 
1831 the donation lands, outside of the town plat, which had been divided 
into "outlots," were also put on sale, and the receipts for the next five yefh's 
were nearly $40,000. The entire receipts from the donation lands, up to 
1871, when the last payments were made, were less than $125,000. 

The reason for the poor returns for the land was that the isolation of 
the place prevented its rapid population, together with the fact that sickness 
was very prevalent in 1821 and 1822. At one time in the fall of 1821, it is 
said that there were only three persons in the place who were not prostrated 
by ague or fever. There were three physicians then at Indianapolis : Drs. 
S. G. Mitchell, Livingston Dunlap and Isaac Coe, and Mitchell and Dunlap 
were soon stricken down, and Coe was kept going night and day, in his 
single-handed fight with disease. 

Topographical Conditions. The early sickness was largely due to the 
fact that the land was heavily timbered, very flat, and poorly drained. The 
rainfall was heavy, and there were many swampy pools that bred mosquitos. 
Northeast of the town was an extensive swamp, later known as Fletcher's 
swamp, which in high water discharged its overflow through the town in 
what were known as "the ravines." The water ran southwesterly, crossing 
the L. E, & W. tracks near Fifteenth street, below which it divided. The east 
ravine struck New Jersey street at Walnut and followed the line of New 
Jersey street across Washington, emptying into Pogue's Run. The west 
ravine crossed Meridian street at Eleventh; Illinois street at St. Clair; cut 
through the present State House grounds, and emptied into the river just 
above Kingan's packing house. These ravines were raging torrents in high 
water, and made numerous stagnant pools in low water. In 1837 they had 
become such nuisances that the Legislature made Calvin Fleitcher and 
Thomas Johnson commissioners to get rid of them. They did so by cuttiug 




North Side of Washington St., looking East from Pennsylvania to Delaware St , 1854. 

Same View. 



the State Ditch, which ran southwesterly from Twentieth street and the 
L. E. & W. tracks to Nineteenth and Central; thence along the south line 
of Morton Place to Delaware street; thence north to the Fall Creek bottom 
land, and thence along its south border to Fall Creek at Twenty-second street. 

This disposed of the trouble, except that three times afterward, in January, 
1847, June, 1858, and June, 1875, the banks of the State Ditch gave way 
and the northern part of the city was flooded by the overflows. There was 
another swamp southeast of the old Deaf and Dumb Asylum, which dis- 
charged its overflow through a channel to the southwest, and then north- 
westerly near the line of Virginia avenue to Pogue's Run. This was known 
as "Virginia River," and was finally disposed of through the South street 
sewer. Another damp spot on the south side, which received considerable 
notice in the sixties, was "Lake McCarty," a large pond between Ray and 
Morris streets, near the J. M. & I. tracks, which was eventually drained 
through the Ray street sewer. During wet seasons, before there were bridges 
over the streams, Indianapolis was practically cut off from the remainder of 
the world by floods, especially in April and May, 1822, May, 1824, and March 
and April, 1826, when the mail carriers were unable to get into or out of 
the town. 

Pioneer Life. The greatest natural obstacle that the first settlers had 
to overcome was the forest. A few of the trees were used for making build- 
ings and fences, and the remainder had to be cleared away before any 
farming could be done. Fortunately, there was a natural "deadening" of 
100 to 200 acres extending northeast from above Military Park to the 
neighborhood of Senate avenue and Fall Creek. The timber on this tract 
was mostly maple, which had been killed by "maple-borers," and the first 
settlers united in clearing out the undergrowth, which they used for a fence 
around "The Caterpillar Deadening," and made a common field of the tract. 
The soil was very fertile and produced ample crops with but little cultiva- 
tion. Game was abundant. Panthers, wolves and wildcats did some damage 
and bears were occasionally found. The last bear recorded was killed near 
Morton Place in 1846. Deer were common and for several years venison 
was much cheaper than beef or pork. In 1821 wild turkeys sold for 12^ cents 
apiece. Wild pigeons were found in immense numbers in their migration 
seasons, and in the spring of 1822 were sold at 25 cents a bushel. 

Squirrels were so numerous that they were veritable pests to the farmers, 
and occasionally they made migrations in droves that numbered thousands. 
Fish of the best quality were in gi'eat abundance in the streams. George W. 
Pitts stated that one day when tlie fish were running up through a break 
in McCormick's dam (just above Riverside Park), he threw out, with his 
hands, eighty-seven bass, ranging from one to five pounds in weight. Fishing 
was not an expert profession in those days., A "pole and line" and a few 
angle worms Were all that was needed to secure "a mess of fish." 

But the gifts of nature were the only commodities that were cheap, for a 
long time. Manufactured goods that were not "home-made" were brought 
in by wagon, or occasionally by flat boat, with much labor and expense. 
Consequently, "store clothes" were high priced, and linsey-woolsey and 
buckskin were very commonly used for clothing. As late as 1843 the county 
commissioners allowed Hervey Hindman "$2 for making buckskin pants for 
paupers." Coffee, tea, hardware and all other commodities that had to be 
imported were costly. This stimulated home production of substitutes. On 
February 25, 1822, the Gazette listed the industrial forces of the new capital 
at "thirteen carpenters and joiners, four cabinet makers, eight blacksmiths, 
four boot and shoe makers, two tailors, one hatter, two tanners, one saddler, 
one cooper, four bricklayers, two merchants, seven houses of entertainment, 



North Side ofWashington St., looking: East from Meridian to Pennsylvania St., 1854. 

Same View. 



three groceries, one schoolmaster, four physicians, one minister of the 
gospel, and three counselors at law." 

Roads and Mails. The first roads to Indianapolis were merely roadways 
cut through the forest, with no grading, and with the stumps still standing. 
They made hard traveling at any time and in wet weather were almost im- 
passable. There were no bridges for more than a dozen years and streams 
that could not be forded were crossed by ferries. Until 1822 the nearest 
postofBce was at Connersville, but on January 28 of that year the first num- 
ber of the Indianapolis Gazette appeared and at that time all of the news- 
paper "dispatches" came by mail. The influence of the press was shown 
l»y a public meeting at Hawkins' tavern on January 30 at which it was de- 
cided to establish a private mail. The meeting elected Aaron Drake post- 
master, and employed him to bring the mail from Connersville once a month. 
His first return with the mail made quite a jubilee, liut his service did 
not last long, for Indianapolis was made a regular postofRce in February 
and Samuel Henderson, who was appointed postmaster, began his official 
duties on March 7. At first the mail came only by way of Connersville, 
Itiit within a year there were weekly mails from Madison and Brookville, 
and fortnightly mails from Centerville, Lawrenceburgh and Washington. 
I'ostage was high as compared with the present rate, and was based on dis- 
lauce. It cost 37i cents to send a letter from New England to Indianapolis: 
25 cents from New York, and 12^ cents from Ohio. 

Early Newspapers. The Gazette, which first appeared on January 28, 1822, 
was published by George Smith and his step-son, Nathaniel Bolton, later the 
husband of Sarah T. Bolton. It was printed in a log cabin at the corner 
of Maryland and Missouri streets, and was the only paper until March 7, 
1823, when Harvey Gregg and Douglass Maguire began publishing the Western 
Censor and Emigrant's Guide, in a cabin on Washington street opposite the 
New Y^ork Store. The Gazette later became The Democrat, and still later 
The Sentinel. The Censor in 1825 became The Journal. These two papers 
were for many years the leading Democratic and Whig — later Republican — 
papers of Indiana. The Sentinel continued until 1906, its last number ap- 
pearing on February 25 of that year. The Journal was consolidated in the 
summer of 1904 with The Star, which had been started on June 6, 1903, by 
George McCulloch and had bought the morning Associated Press franchise 
of The Sentinel. 

The first number of The Indianapolis News appeared on December 7, 1869. 
It was owned and published by John H. Holliday, who continued in active 
control of it until 1892, when he retired on account of his health. The Sun 
was started on March 12, 1888, by five newspaper men from Cleveland, with 
Fred L. Purdy as editor. It was continued under that name until July, 1914, 
when it was bought by W. D. Boyce, of Chicago, and on July 20 its name 
was changed to The Indiana Times. There were several other papers that 
were elements of Indianapolis development. One was the Locomotive, started 
in 1845 by three apprentices in the Journal office. It died out. was revived 
in 1848, and for the next decade was an Indianapolis institution. Another 
notable paper was the Farmer and Gardener, started by Henry Ward Beecher 
in 1845. .Another was The Common School Advocate, founded by Henry 
West, later Mayor of Indianapolis, in 1846. In 1856 the Indiana School 
Journal was started, with George B. Stone, then superintendent of the In- 
dianapolis schools, as editor. Later this paper came under the control of 
Professor W. A. Bell, who edited it for thirty years. In 1900 it was con- 
solidated with the Inland Educator, and is now published as The Educator- 
Journal. Two weekly papers that are remembered by many Indianapolis 
people were The Herald, edited by George Harding, and The People, edited 
by Enos B. Reed. 




South Side of Washington St., looking East from Meridian to Pennsylvania St., 1854. 


L. 6. AYRES ft CO.-S BLOG. 

Same View. 


Marion County Organized. By an act of January 9, 1821. Governor Jennings 
was directed to appoint two justices of the peace for Indianapolis, and he 
appointed John Maxwell and Jacob Crumbaugh, who were the first officials 
at this place. Maxwell resigned and James Mcllvain was appointed in his 
place. Mcllvain had his office in a twelve-foot cabin at Meridian and Ohio 
streets, on the site of the old City Library building. There was doubt as to 
the legality of these appointments, as the Constitution provided only for 
the election of justices for townships, and there were no townships. A meet- 
ing held at Hawkins' tavern, in the fall of 1821, sent James Blake and Dr. 
S. G. Mitchell to Corydon to secure county organization. They succeeded, 
and the law organizing Marion County was adopted December 31, 1821. 

The county was twenty miles square, as at present, but a still larger tract, 
to the northeast, covering the settlements on Fall Creek and White River 
as far east as Anderson, was added to Marion County for governmental pur- 
poses, the inhabitants having "all the privileges of citizens of said County of 
Marion." For judicial purposes the new county was added to tbe Fifth 
.Judicial Circuit, of which William Watson Wick was appointed judge by 
Governor Jennings. Under the law at that time, when a new county was 
to be organized the Governor appointed a sheriff, who called and held 
an election, appointing all the election officers, administering oaths, re- 
ceiving returns, canvassing the vote, and issuing certificates of election. 
To this position Hervey Bates, of Connersville, was appointed by Governor 

Tlie rirst Election. On February 22. 1822, Sheriff Bates issued his procla- 
mation for an election, to be held on April 1. The designated voting 
places were the houses of John Carr at Indianapolis, John Finch, near Con- 
ner's Station ; John Paige, at Strawtown ; .John Berry, at Anderson, and 
William McCartney, at Pendleton. The campaign had begun in December, 
and by tradition it was a decidedly wet campaign. The contending parties 
were known as "Kentucky" and "Whitewater," and were supposed to repre- 
sent the localities from which the settlers came. In reality "Whitewater" 
was the local representative of the Jennings party in the State, and it was 
triumphant in the election. There were 336 votes cast in the county, of 
which 224 were at Indianapolis. The highest vote was 217 for James M. 
Ray for clerk. James Mcllvain and Eliakim Harding were elected associate 
circuit judges ; Joseph C. Reed, recorder, and John McCormick, John T. 
Osborn and William McCartney, county commissioners. 

First County Commissioners' Session. The newly elected commissioners 
met on April 15 at the house of John Carr, which was on Delaware street, 
just north of Washington, and which was "the seat of government" until 
public buildings were erected. Their first act was to appoint Daniel Yandes 
county treasurer, and approve his bond. They next divided the county 
into nine townships, substantially as at present, but for governmental pur- 
poses temporarily put them in four groups, known as Washington-Lawrence, 
Center-Warren, Decatur-Perry-Franklin, and Pike- Wayne. They provided for 
ten justices of the peace, however, one for each township, with one extra 
for Indianapolis. The territory outside of Marion County proper was divided 
into four township's, including severally the settlements at Anderson, Pendle- 
ton, Strawtown and Conner's station. The election for justices of the peace 
was held on May 11 and Wilkes Reagan, Lismund Basye and Obed Foote were 
elected for Center -Warren. 

On April 17 the commissioners adopted a seal, with the words, "Marion 
County Seal" around a star. This was never used, but on May 14 a pair of 
scales over a plough and a sheaf of wheat was substituted for the star. 




North Side of Washington Street, between Meridian and Illinois Streets, 1854. 

Same Vie>v. 



This seal was used until 1841, when the scales and the plough and sheaf 
wei*e replaced by "the engraving of a basket of fruit and likewise the repre- 
sentation of a Berkshire pig." On September 27, 1822. the circuit court 
adopted a seal with the same design of scales, plough and sheaf, but later 
the plough and sheaf were dropped, and now only the scales appear. 

The commissioners also fixed the ferry rates for crossing White River, 
at Washington street, ranging from 62i cents for a four-horse wagon, to 2 
cents for each head of hogs or sheep, and 6i cents for a person. They fixed 
tavern rates at 12+ cents for a half pint of whisky, a quart of cider or beer, 
a night's lodging, or a gallon of corn or oats, and 25 cents for a meal, a 
half pint of imported rum, brandy, gin or wine, a quart of porter or cider 
wine, or a feed of hay for a horse. 

First Tax Rate. On May 13, 1822, the commissioners met again and 
their first work was fixing the tax rates. At that time State taxes w^ere im- 
posed only on farm lands and bank stock, and these could not be taxed 
by the counties,, The commissioners levied a tax of 10 cents on $100 of 
appraised value of town lots, aud a poll tax of 50 cents. The personal 
property taxes Avere 37* cents for a horse, 25 cents for an ox. $1 for a 
two-wheeled "pleasure carriage," $1.25 for a four-wheeled carriage, 25 cents 
for a silver watch, 50 cents for a gold watch, $6 for a ferry and $10 for a 
tavern. The last two were license taxes, and the tavern tax was a liquor 
license, nobody being authorized to sell intoxicating liquors except tavern 

First Court House and Jail. On the same day the sheriff was directed to 
let the "clearing" of the Court House S(iuare to the lowest bidder, in prepara- 
tion for the Court House. Four mouths later Earl Pearce and Samuel 
Hyde were paid $59 for cutting and removing the trees on the square, al- 
though they left two hundred sugar trees remaining for a "grove." The 
Legislature had appropriated. $8,000 for building the Court House, to be 
suitable for a State House until the State House was built. Plans were 
prepared by John E. Baker and James Paxton and on September 3 the con- 
tract was awarded to them for $13,996. It was a two-story building, forty- 
five feet front, facing Washington street, and sixty feet deep. On the lower 
floor, at the rear, was the courtroom, or hall of representatives, 40^ feet 
square. Above it on the second floor, was the senate chamber, or second 
court-room, 41i by 25 feet. The contract also covered the furnishing. It 
was completed and accepted January 7, 1825, the Legislature having appropri- 
ated the additional $5,996. It also served for sessions of the federal courts 
and Supreme court, and for public meetings of various kinds. After nearly 
half-a-century of service it was torn down to make place for the present 
Court House. 

The first jail was built on the northwest corner of the Court House square, 
in 1822, pursuant to directions of the commissioners at this same session. 
It was a two-story structure, built of logs twelve inches square. The only 
opening in the sides of the lower story was a window one foot square, with 
iron bars. The upper story was reached by a ladder, and in its floor was a 
trap door, through which the prisoners passed down another ladder to the 
"dungeon." This jail lasted until 1833, when it was burned down by a 
negro who was stopping there, and who narrowly escaped incinerating him- 
self. The county then built a brick jail east of the Court House on Alabama 
street. It was 46 by 20 feet in size, and very strongly built. The criminals 
were kept on the lower floor and the upper floor was divided between the 
jailer's family and the debtor's prison. At that time the law allowed im- 
prisonment for debt, but prior to the building of this jail, as there was 



South Side of Washington Street, looking East from Illinois to Meridian Street, 1854. 


Same View 


no satisfactory place of imprisonment, debtors had been kept "on the bounds," 
i. e. debtors were not allowed to go east of East street, or north of New 
York street — from the corner of New York and Meridian the "bounds" line 
ran south to Ohio, west to Illinois, south to Washington, east to Meridian, 
south to Georgia, east to North Carolina, and northeast to East. The prisoner 
had to give bond that he would remain "a true prisoner" to be confined 
in this way. 

The second jail was out of date in 1853, and a new stone jail was built 
on the northeast corner of the Court House square. This was used until 
1891, and was the scene of the only executions that ever occurred in Marion 
County — William Merrick and John Achey on .January 29. 1879; Louis Guetig 
on September 29, 1879, and Robert Phillips on April 8, 1886. In 1891 the 
present jail was decided on, and it was built at a cost of $150,000. 

The First School. In 1821 the settlers got together and built a log school 
house on the point between Kentucky avenue and Illinois street. Joseph 
C. Reed was the first teacher. He was elected county recorder in April, 

1822, and there is no record of any other school until April, 1824, when 
Rice B. Lawrence and his wife opened a school in the new Presbyterian 
church., Mr. Lawrence died four months later, but his wife continued the 
school for about a year. In November, 1826, Ebenezer Sharpe opened the 
Indianapolis Academy, which was the principal school of the town until 
the establishment of the county seminarj^ in 1834. 

Religrious Beginnings. Most of the first settlers of Indianapolis were 
of a sober-minded and generally religious class, probably for the reason 
that there was nothing here to attract any other class. There were religious 
meetings in their cabins before there were any church buildings, and itinerant 
preachers always had congregations with little reference to sectarian aflilia- 
tions. Who preached the first sermon is not certain. Claim is made for 
Rev. Resin Hammond, a Methodist, who preached at Isaac Wilson's cabin 
in the spring of 1821, Rev. John McClung preached here at about the same 
time, and he returned in the early fall and became the first resident clergy- 
man, locating near the present fair grounds, where he died on August 18, 

1823. Rev. Ludwell G. Haines held an open air meeting in August, 1821. 
The Baptists organized the first church on October 10, 1822. Mrs. Calvin 
Fletcher mentions several sermons that she heard in the fall of 1821, 
and states that the first sermon preached in the Governor's Circle was on 
May 12, 1822, by Rev. David C. Proctor, a Presbyterian. 

In the fall of 1821, Rev. William Cravens was sent here by the Missouri 
Metliodist Conference to organize a circuit, and in November, 1822, Rev. 
James Scott located at Indianapolis, in charge of the circuit. He was in 
charge of the first camp meeting in this neighborhood, which began on 
September 13, 1822, and lasted for four days. The first Presbyterian church 
was organized on July 5, 1823, at Caleb Scudder's cabinet shop, on Wash- 
ington street, opposite the State House. They built the first church, a 
small one-story building, on Pennsylvania street, opposite Keith's theater. 
The entrance was on the side away from the street. This building was also 
used for a school. 

First Sunday School. Dr. Isaac Coe, an elder of the Presbyterian church, 
organized a Bible class in February, 1822, which met at his house, and was 
active in organizing a Sunday school, which held its first meeting on April 
6, 1823. This was a union Sunday school, and several of the active workers 
were not church members. It was of great value to Indianapolis in an 
educational way. The younger pupils were taught to read and spell, and 
the chief work of the pupils was memorizing verses from the Bible. To 



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I'mf iff f lis If 



North Side of Washington St., looking West from Illinois to Capitol Ave., 1834. 

Same Viev*r. 



stimulate the memorizing, books from the Sunday school library were 
loaned as rewards to the diligent. The Sunday school was one of the most 
popular institutions of the place, and there was but one in the town until 
1828, when the Methodists organized a separate school. Outside of the town, 
however, Sunday schools had sprung up, until, in 1829. there were 18 of 
them in the county. 

Fourth of July Celebrations. The first Fourth of July, 1821, was cele- 
brated by the young people of the place, who borrowed a keel boat that 
had come up the river, and went up to Anderson's spring for a picnic. Ander- 
son's spring, which still flows, is at the foot of the bluff on the west side 
of White River below Emmerich's grove. In 1822 there was a formal celebra- 
tion, opening with a sermon by Rev. John McClung, followed by the reading 
of the Declaration of Independence by Judge Wick; Washington's Inaugural 
Address, by Squire Obed Foote; W^ashington's Farewell Address by John 
Hawkins; prayer and benediction liy Rev. Robert Brenton, and winding up 
with a dinner with numerous toasts. Thereafter the celebration was a cus- 
tom and it was usual to form a procession which marched to the place of 

In 1828 the Sunday schools took part in the procession as organizations, 
and thereafter they were the chief factors in the celebration, as may be seen 
from jthe following formation of the procession in 1829: 
"1. Artillery. 

2. Ladies and Female Teachers. 

3. Four Female Teachers and Banner. 

4. Female Scholars, Smallest in Front. 

5. Music. 

0. Four Male Teachers and Banner. 

7. Male scholars, smallest in front. 

8. Two Clergymen, Reader and Orator. 

9. Superintendents, Teachers, etc. 
10. Citizens, four abreast." 

This custom was kept up uutil 1857, the procession usually breaking up 
at the State House square, where rusk- and water were issued to the youthful 
wayfarers. The militia and the fire companies were also features of the parade. 

First Session of Court. The first session of the Circuit Court in Marion 
County began on September 2G, 1822, before the Court House was built. 
The court opened at the cabin of John Carr, but, as it was too small, 
adjourned to that of Jacob Crumbaugh, justice of the peace, at Market and 
Missouri streets, after the lawyers present had been admitted to practice. 
Calvin Fletcher was appointed prosecuting attorney. A grand jury was im- 
panelled and returned twenty-two indictments, for selling liquor without 
license and other misdemeanors. There were no felony indictments in the 
first two years of the county. 

The court next fixed the prison bounds for debtors as mentioned, and 
then proceeded to naturalize Richard Good, who was described as "lately 
from Cork, in the Kingdom of Ireland," which would indicate Sinn Fein 
affiliation. An interesting feature of the session Avas the indictment of 
Daniel Yandes, Andrew Wilson, John McCormick and 'William Foster, all 
millers, for obstructing navigation in White River. The defendants showed 
that their dams were only "wing dams," which left open channels for boats. 
Foster and McCormick were convicted and fined one cent each ; then Yandes 
and Wilson were acquitted, after which the court suspended sentence as to 
the others. When the court adjourned it allowed Cruml)augh $7.50 for the 
use of his house, as he was not a profiteer. 


South Side of Washington St., looking West from Illinois to Capitol Ave., 1854. 

Same View. 


First Theater. The year 1823 came to a dramatic close with a theatrical 
performance at Carter's tavern on the evening of December 31. It was given 
by "Mr. and Mrs. Smith," whose identity is not fully established, although 
it has been thought that Smith may have been "Old Sol Smith." who was 
an uncle to Sol Smith Russell, and was the pioneer theatrical manager of 
the Ohio valley. They presented "The Jealous Lovers" and "Lord, What a 
Snow Storm in May and June." Nathaniel Bolton, who was present, says 
that Mrs. Smith also sang "The Star-Spangled Banner," and danced "a 
hornpipe blindfolded amongst eggs." 

Indian Neighbors. There were no Indian troubles at Indianapolis or in 
the immediate vicinity. The Indian "town" nearest the place consisted of 
two or three cabins on White River at the line between Marion and Hamilton 
counties. This was sometimes called "the Lower Delaware town." and some- 
times "Bruettstown," from a French half-breed Indian doctor named Brouil- 
lette, who lived there. Under the treaty of St. Marys the Delaware Indians 
were given until 1821 to remove, and after their removal the Miamis and 
.stragglers from other tribes hunted in unsettled parts of the New Purchase 
and occasionally brought game to Indianapolis for sale. There was a worth- 
less fellow called Wyandotte John, who lived in a hollow log on the river 
bank at Indianapolis, but he made no trouble. One day a drunken Delaware 
Indian tried to frighten Mrs. John McCormick, but explained that he was 
joking when her husband appeared. 

Trouble was threatened at one time, on account of the brutal murder of 
nine Indians, near Pendleton, by five white men. The crime was condemned 
by everybody, and the Indians were promised that justice should be done. 
The criminals were arrested, and three of them were hanged for their of- 
fense. Representatives of the Indians attended the execution, and were 
satisfied with the reparation. In fact they seemed more shocked by the 
hanging than by the murder of their kinsmen, and, according to tradition, 
one of them said: "Indian want no more white man weighed." 

Moving the Capital. The Constitution of 1816 made Corydon the capital 
of the State until 1825 "and until removed by law." Naturally, the Corydon 
people wanted the capital as long as possible, and southwestern Indiana 
was with them. The "Whitewater" party favored speedy removal, but was 
not strong enough to control until legislators were elected from the New 
Purchase. By act of January 7, 1823, Marion County was included in new 
senatorial and representative districts, and at the August election James 
Paxton, colonel of the Fortieth regiment of militia, in which Marion County 
militia was included, w^as chosen representative, and James Gregory of 
Shelby County, senator. At the next session of the Legislature a law was 
passed requiring the State government to be in operation at Indianapolis 
on January 10, 1825, and this meant the meeting of the Legislature for that 
year, which began in January. The opposition, led by Dennis Pennington, 
tried to prevent removal until December, 1825, but lost by one vote. On 
February 20, 1825, the grateful people of Indianapolis gave a supper to 
Paxton and Gregory at Washington hall, which was a new tavern, where 
the New York Store now stands, belonging to James Blake and Samuel 

The actual moving of the State offices was entrusted to Samuel Merrill, 
treasurer of state. He disposed of the surplus furniture in November. 1824, 
and started to Indianapolis with four four-horse wagons, which carried all 
the papers and records, the money in the treasury, the press and "office" 
of the State printer, and the families of himself and John Douglass, the State 
printer. The journey of ICO miles over bad roads took two weeks, although 



Pennsylvania Street, Looking North from Washington Street, 1856. 

Same View, 




the traveling was best at that time of year. Mr. Merrill's bill for the re- 
moval was $65.55. with $9.50 additional for moving the State library. The 
Legilature. however, very properly voted Mr. Merrill $100 for his services 
On arrivalat Indianapolis, part of the State offices were ^stalled in he 
new court House, and part in rented quarters. The Legislature of 1825, the 
firrt that met at Indianapolis, appropriated $1,000 to build an office for 
the auditor of State, and an office and residence for the treasurer of State 
and this building was erected at the southwest corner of Washington and 
Capitol avenue. It was a two-story brick building, and was the first State 
building at Indianapolis. 

Early State Building.. The second State building was a ferry house at 
Washington street and the river, built in 1S2G by Asahel Dunnmg the 
^ssee o? the ferry, and paid for out of the rentals. In 1827 an appropriation 
If $500 w-as made for building an office for the clerk of the Supreme cour , 
on t^e Court House square, and one of $1.-000 for building the Governor's 
mans on in the Circle. In 1831 enough money was in the treasury to justify 
tX" a State House, and provision was made for one. not to cost over 
000 James Blake was made commissioner to advertise for plans, and 
to secure stone for the foundation. At the session of 1832 the plan 
submit ed bv Ithiel Town, the most notable American architect of the period, 
^^adopted. and Gov. Noble, Morris Morris and ^^^^^'^^^'^ 
appointed commissioners to superintend the construction of the building. 

The State House was completed in December, 1835. in time for the meeting 
of the Legislature in the following January. It was handsome in appear- 
ance but not very substantial. The foundation was of rather soft limestone, 
and the superstructure was partly of brick and partly of lath^covered wood- 
work, all of which was coated with stucco. 

This State House was about 200 feet in length and 100 feet m width, with 
halls for the Senate and House on the second floor, together with rooms 

Governor's Mansion that stood in the Circle. 





City Hall. 

for the Supreme Court. On tbe lower floor \Yere tlie State library aud other 
state offices, except those of the auditor and treasurer, which remained in 
their special building across Washington street until 1857. when it was 
abandoned. By 1867 the State House was so overcrowded and dilapidated 
that a new building was erected in place of the old Treasurer's building. It 
was a substantial brick building, into which moved the Supreme Court and 
all the State offices except those of Governor and the State library. This ar- 
rangement continued until 1877, when provision was made for the present 

Town Government. There was no town organization in Indianapolis until 
1832. The general law of the State provided that the county commissioners 
could incorporate a town, aud call an election for trustees. On September 
9, 1832, the county commissioners declared the town incorporated, and ordered 
an election on September 29. John Wilkins, Henry P. Coburn, John G. Brown, 
Samuel Henderson and Samuel Merrill were elected trustees. They appointed 
Isaac N. Heylin, clerk; Obed Foote, treasurer; Josiah W. Davis, assessor, 
and Glidden True, marshal and tax collector. This form of government 
continued until 1836 when the town re-incorporated under a special charter, 
which differed from the general law chiefly in giving the trustees greater 
police powers. After two years' experience, still greater local powers were 
desired, and the town was granted a new charter, which continued in force 
until city government was adopted in 1847. 

The National Road. The National Road had been slowly advancing to the 
west through Ohio. In 1827 it was definitely located through Indiana, and 
in 1828 contracts were let for cutting the roadway, grading and building 
bridges. The contract for the bridge over White River at Indianapolis 
was let in' 18-31 and the bridge was finished in 1834. There was never enough 
money appropriated to macadamize the road through Indiana and what 
was available was used in macadamizing a few miles west from Richmond, 




Monument Place Indiana Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. 






City Building. 

and a few miles east and west from Indianapolis. The road ran through 
Washington street, and was the first real street improvement in the place. 
This occurred in 1837, and it started a movement for improvement which 
resulted in an ordinance for grading and graveling the street outside of 
the macadam roadway, and assessing the cost to the abutting property. It 
was at this time that the sidewalks on Washington street were made twenty 
feet in width,, 

The Canal. The chief benefits that were expected to accrue to Indianapolis 
from the internal improvement system of 1836 were to come through the 
Central Canal and the Indianapolis and Madison railroad. The canal was 
planned to run from a point on the Wabash and Erie canal to Muncie, 
and thence down the valley of White River to its mouth, thence to Evans- 
ville. Work was begun in sections and the only part completed and put 
in operation was some seven miles, from Broad Ripple to Indianapolis. The 
line of the canal was as at present, except that at the bend above Market 
street there was a stone lock, below which the canal continued, on the line 
of Missouri street, to the river bottom at about Kansas street. At this point 
there were two wooden locks taking it to the level of the bottom lands. 

The arm of the canal extending west, below Military Park, was known as 
"the hydraulic," and originally it had two extensions, one to the north 
and one to the south, on the line of Bright street. From these "basins" water 
power was furnished to a number of mills as soon as the canal was opened 
in the summer of 1839, At the north end of the north basin was a grist 
mill operated by an overshot wheel. On the south basin and the lower 
level were the Caledonia paper mill, the Carlisle and Gibson flour mills, 
the Sheets paper mill, the Merritt woolen mill, and the Chandler & Taylor 
plant, which then used water power. The water power proved so unreliable 
on account of breaks in the canal that it was finally abandoned by the 



Tomlinson Hall and Market House 

mills. The State expended $1,600,000 on the Central Canal and when it was 
ordered sold to the highest bidder in 1850, all of it in Marion County brought 
$2,245. After that time it was little used except for bringing cord-wood from 
points north of the city, and flour from the mill at Broad Ripple. It was 
also used by picnic parties, who went to Golden Hill on the scows used 
for transportation. It was finally purchased by the Indianapolis Water Com- 
pany, and is now the chief source of the city's water supply, the water being 
purified in the filtration plant near Fall Creek. It may be noted that the 
somewhat boisterous class of workmen brought here in the construction 
of the National Road and the Canal were the cause of the demand for 
stronger town goTernment in 1836 and 1838. 

The First Kailroads. The State began work on the Madison railroad in 
1838, but had completed only 28 miles north from Madison when it abandoned 
the enterprise and turned the property over to a company in February, 1843. 
It crept northward slowly, reaching Edinburg in 1846. and the first train 
entering Indianapolis on October 1, 1847. Spalding's North American Circus 
reached the city on the same day, and between the two Indianapolis had 
one of the most hilarious days in its history. The depot of this road 
was located on South street, between Delaware and Penusylvauhi, wtieh 
was then rather "out of town," and was reached by wagons and hacks which 
had to cross the broad and swampy valley of Pogue's Run. The railroad, 
however, made a revolution in conditions at Indianapolis, reducing the prices 
of all imported goods, and increasing the prices of all exported, - products. 
It was also of great importance because it made possible the c6nstru9$ion 
of railroads from Indianapolis as an initial point. ' . ^< 

Additional roads quickly followed under these conditions. The "Bee Line" 
was opened to Pendleton, 28 miles, in December, 1850, and in December. 
1852, to I'nion City, where it joined the Bellefontaine road, with which it 



Marion County Court House. 

was Jater consolidated. The Peru road was completed to Noblesville on 
March 11, 1851. The road to Terre Haute, 73 miles, was completed in May, 
1852. The road to Lafayette was completed in December, 1852. The road 
to Richmond was completed in December, 1S53. Meanwhile the road from 
Jeffersonville liad been completed to Edinburg in 1852, from which point it 
used the Madison tracks ; and the road from Lawrenceburg reached Indian- 
apolis in October, 1853. The union tracks, connecting these roads, were 
laid in 1850, and the Union Depot was opened for use on September 28, 1853. 
The UnioA' Depot was planned by Gen, T. A, Morris, and was originally 420 
feet long ^nd 120 feet wide. In 186G it was widened to 200 feet and a dining 
hall was tdded. It was used until 1887, when it was removed to make room 
for the new passenger station. 

Mexican War. Indianapolis had its first touch of real war in 184G. The 
State militia had been represented here from the first. In 1826 an artillery 
company was formed, with James Blake as captain, and obtained a small 
cannon from the government. This was thereafter known locall.v as "The 
Artillery.'' In 1832 the militia were called out for the Black Hawk war, and 
some 300 gathered at Indianapolis, whence they left for the battle-field under 
the ^ommiind of Col. Alexander W. Russell, and guided by Wm. Conner. 
They were mounted and armed in frontier fashion with rifles and tomahawks. 
They got as far as Chicago and then marched back, the war being over. For 
theJfutUTQ they were known as "The Bloody Three Hundred." 

After that militarj' training lost interest and was little in evidence, except 
on (Fourth of July, until 1837, In that year a number of j'oung men organ- 
ized the j Marion Guards, commonly knows as "the Grays," on account of 
their uniforms. Their imposing appearance aroused rivalry, and in 1842 the 
"Marion Riflemen" organized. They were not quite so aristocratic, wearing 
blue hunting shirts, and were popularly known as "The Arabs." Both or- 


State Capitol Building:. 

ganizations had become deeartent when the call came for volunteers in the 
spring of 1846; but Lew AYallace, who had belonged to the Rifles, decided 
to raise a company, and when he paraded the streets with fife and drum and 
a transparency inscribed "For Mexico. Fall in I" members of both the old 
organizations joined in. and in three days the company was full. .Tames P. 
Drake was elected captain — later colonel of the First Indiana Regiment — and 
the company left amid public acclaim, after being presented a flag by Sarali 
T. Bolton on behalf of the ladies of the city. None of the Indiana troop< 
saw a large amount of active service in the war, being assigned chiefly to 
guard duty. Half a dozen of the Indianapolis boys fell victims to disease; but 
the only body brought home for burial was that of Capt. Trustin B. Kinder. 
who fell at Buena Vista. He was buried with military honors, and the largest 
funeral known in Indianapolis up to that time. 

State Institutions. In its earlier years the State did not provide for defec- 
tives. It was led to do so by the medical profession, learning that insanity 
was a curable disease in many cases. In 1842 Dr. John Evans and Dr. Isaac 
Fisher of Attica petitioned the legislature to establish an insane asylum. The 
legislature of 1843 took preliminary steps for caring for the insane and edu- 
cating the deaf and dumb, with suppleiueutary legislation following. Square 
22 of the original town plat, which had been reserved for a State hospital, was 
sold, and the proceeds used for the insane asylum, together with a special tax. 
The Bolton farm at Mt. Jackson was purchased and the first buildings of the 
Central Insane Hospital were completed in 1848. The deaf and dumb school 
was in rented quarters until 1850, when the building at Washington street and 
Arsenal avenue was occupied. The school was removed to its present site in 
1907. Instruction for the blind was first given in a private school by "William 
Willard. The State took up the work in 1845 and the building for the school 
was completed in 1853. This building, which still stands, was planned by 
John R. Elder, of Indianai)<>lis : but his plans were revised by Francis Costi- 



Federal Building. U. S. Court House and Post Office. 

gaii, a Madison architect, who added the front steps and the cupola to the 

City Government. Indianapolis became a city in 1847. This was chiefly the 
result of a law and order movement, caused by the element that was brought 
by the approaching- railroad, and the desire for a stronger executive. The 
charter also corrected an injustice of taxation, which in some mysterious way 
had been restricted to the original mile square in the old charter. Incidentally 
it provided for free schools. Before that time the public provided only the 
school house and the pupils paid tuition. The charter was subject to the vote 
of the people, and at the special election on March 27 it was adopted by a vote 
of 449 to 19. The free school section, which was voted on separately, was 
adopted by 406 to 28. 

Samuel Henderson was elected first Mayor of Indianapolis. The new Council 
on June 7, 1847, adopted tile city seal — an eagle perched on a globe with a 
scale in his beak — and then entered on a mild course of public improvement 
in the line of grading and graveling the principal streets. The city was con- 
ducted under this charter until 1853, when it went under the general State law, 
and so continued until 1891. 

School Development. The only difference between public and private schools 
in the early days was that the private schools supplied their own school houses 
and were not supervised by officials. The central feature of the public school 
system was the county seminary. That for Marion county was built on .the 
southwest corner of University Square, which had been leased from the State, 
and the school was opened on September 1, 1834. The pupils paid tuition, and 
it was for boys only. Girls were admitted to district schools, and after that 
they attended "seminaries" or did without. There were very good schools for 
girls in Indianapolis — Mrs. Tichenor's in 1830, Miss Hooker's in 1834, and then 
the church schools. The Presbyterians began with one conducted by the 
Misses Axtell in 1837. The Episcopalians followed in 1839 with a school taught 



Pub'ic Library Building 

by Rev. Samuel Johnson. The Methodists opened "McLean Seminary" in 1S50 
with Rev. Thos. Lynch in charge. The Baptists opened "The Indianapolis Fe- 
male Institute," where Shortridge High School now stands, in 1859. 

Under the Constitution of 1851 free schools were provided and girls had the 
same privileges as boys. The Seminary building was used for a high school 
until 1858. The Indianapolis schools took on new life when A. C. Shortridge 
was made superintendent in 1863. The high school was then installed in the 
old Beecher church at the northwest corner of Circle and Market streets. It 
remained there until 1870. when it went to the old Baptist Seminary building. 

Volunteer Fire Companies. The first fire company in Indianapolis was or- 
ganized in 1826. It had no apparatus but ladders and leather buckets. In 
1835, as there were no ladders long enough to reach the roof of the new State 
House, the legislature provided that if the people of Indianapolis would sub- 
scribe half the cost of a fire engine the State would pay the other half, pur- 
chase twenty-five buckets and four long ladders and build a house for the engine. 
This was accepted and the engine house was built in the Governor's Circle, on 
the north side, just west of Meridian street. An engine was promptly purchased 
and named "The Marion." In 1840 a second engine was bought and christened 
"The Good Intent." The company then divided, part of them organizing the 
Independent Relief Company and taking the "Good Intent" to a house on 
Meridian street south of "Washington. In 1S43 a hook and ladder company was 
organized. In 1849 the Western Liberties Company was organized on the west 
side. In the same year a number of boys, who were too young to get into the 
regular companies, organized the "O. K. Bucket Company." In 1S52 a number 
of Germans organized the Invincible Company and an engine called "The Vic- 
tory" was bought for them. In 1855 the Union Company was organized on 
the south side, and an engine called "The Spirit of Seventy-Six" was bought 
for them. 



Coliseum Building at Fair Grounds. 

The fire companies became very influential political organizations and were 
rather free and easy in their fire service. In 1859, steam fire engines having 
come into use, the city decided to have a paid fire company with steam fire 
engines, and the volunteer hand engine companies were disbanded. A num- 
ber of the members, however, went into the paid department. 

The Civil War. The opening of the Civil War found Indiana as unprepared 
as the rest of the country. Governor Morton engaged in preparation with 
great energy. Anticipating war he had obtained from the national govern- 
ment all the militia equipment coming to the State. He appointed Robert Dale 
Owen agent for the State to purchase arms and supplies, and he expended 
about $900,000 for these purposes. As ammunition could not be purchased in 
quantities an arsenal was started on the square north of the State House for 
its manufacture. This was so successful and of such value in supplying other 
troops, as well as those of Indiana, that in 1863 the United States bought the 
tract now occupied by the Technical High School and took over the arsenal 

Naturally the war activities of the State centered at Indianapolis. The State 
fair grounds (now Morton Place) were taken for a camp for recruits — later for 
a prison for rebel prisoners. The unfinished City Hospital was taken for a 
military hospital. The Sanitary Fair, to raise funds for special supplies for 
the soldiers, took the place of ordinary social functions ; but it was only .one 
of the activities of the Ladies' Protective Association. Camps Carrington, 
Sullivan and Buruside Barracks were occupied by coming and going troops. 
With all this, and the activities of the Sanitary Commission, the Soldiers' 
Home, the preparations to repulse Morgan's raid, and various other things, 
the city was almost on a military basis. 

There were four militia companies in the city at the opening of the war— 
the "Grays," the "Arabs," the Independent Zouaves and the Zouave Guards. 
These went out with the Eleventh Indiana, a zouave regiment, under Col. Lew 



Lockerbie Street— Where the Hoosier Poet, James Whitcomb Riley, Lived and Died. 

Wallace, in the three months" service. The Turners hart a military company 
of their own, which enlisted en masse and went into camp two days after the 
President's call for troops. To Indianapolis the war began with Lincoln's 
speech from the Bates House balcony on February 12, 1S61, and ended when 
his body lay in state in the corridor of the State House on April 30, 1865. 

Business Development. The early business problem of Indianapolis was 
getting goods from the outside world into the town and getting the produce 
of this vicinity to the outside world. Most of the importing was by wagon 
over very bad roads; but part of it, and most of the exporting, were by flat- 
boats on White river. Flatboats not only went to New Orleans from this 
point but also went from points 130 miles above here. If White river were in 
Europe it would be navigated by steamboats today. From Indianapolis to its 
mouth is 28.5 miles, and the fall of the river in that distance is only 260 feet. 
If the gravel bars were dredged out and put on the roads a few dams would 
make the river practically navigable. 

The exports were chiefly agricultural products, and their manufactures. 
Hay was baled in large quantities for the New Orleans trade. Pork packing 
began in 1834 for the same purpose and later developed into one of the city's 
most important industries. It is not generally known that summer pork pack- 
ing originated here. The Kingaus in 1863 built here what was then the largest 
pork house in the world. At that time pork could be packed only in freezing 
weather. One of their employes, George W. Stockman, of an old Lawrenceburg 
family, conceived the idea of artificial freezing, based on the fact that cold 
air is heavier than warm air; and by a series of vats filled with ice and salt, 
through which tubes passed, the first on the top floor and ranging to the base- 
ment, succeeded in cooling the air so that it would freeze the meat when 
blown on it by a rotary blower. By this system Kingan's packed 69.000 hogs 
in the summer of 1871. The system was introduced elsewhere and the ammonia 



Marion County Seminary in University Park, 1834. 

process of freezing was invented. A revolution was made in tlie industry and 
it was one of the most important industrial revolutions in tbe history of the 

The first extensive attempt at manufacturing was "the Steam Mill," opened 
in 1832, which failed chiefly because there was no market for its product. 
There was a second advance in manufacture after the coming of the canal, as 
stated above. The permanent growth of manufactures and of wholesale trade 
began after the coming of the railroad in 1847. The first ^business organiza- 
tion was a Merchants' Exchange in 1848, which was reorganized as the Board 
of Trade in 1853. The first State Fair was held in 1852 in what is now Military 
Park. In 1872, after the fair grounds had been moved to what is now Morton 
Place, an exposition was held in a building on Nineteenth street erected for 
that purpose, and this was repeated for the three years succeeding. 

The City Charter. Early in 1890 the Commercial Club was organized, and 
in the summer it held a paving exposition.. Interest in better streets was 
general. In March the Board of Trade adopted a resolution for a joint com- 
mittee to secure a law for a Board of Public Works and other needed legisla- 
tion. It appointed Jas. A. Wildman and S. T. Bowen in addition to its presi- 
dent, Geo. G. Tanner. The Commercial Club appointed A. L. Mason, Samuel 
E. Morss and Granville S. Wright. The city's committee was Mayor Thos. L. 
Sullivan, Isaac J. Thalman and William Wesley Woollen. This committee 
recommended a new city charter; and it prepared one which was adopted with 
slight change and is still in effect, with some amendments that do not affect 
its general principles. 

There may be flaws in the city charter, but it is unquestionable that the 
efficient government made possible by it is the cause of the rapid improvement 
of the city under its provisions. The improved streets, the sewers, the parks, 
and other things that make Indianapolis a modern city, simply did not exist 
before the city charter was adopted. The present generation has been edu- 
cated to a higher standard of municipal living, and it is a certainty that the 
future of the city will be one of progress in those things that make a city 
desirable for residence and business. 



NDIANArOLIS is the lurgcsf IiiIjuhI city on the Atf).Ti«;iii 
continent and one of the most important railroa'l centers in 
this country. It is, too, one of tlie handsomest cities, and one 
of the most prosperous and progressive. It is the commercial, 
industrial, social, religious, educational, political and govern- 
mental center of Indiana — ^ricl) in natural resources and one o! 
the most progressive States in the Union. It is more typically 
a cjipit.'il of a State than any other city in the country and is recognized as 
such in all parts of the United States. 

It is situated sixty miles from the center of population of the United States, 
within the geographical center of manufacturing of the country, and witli un- 
equaled facilities for distribution. 

The Area within the city is 42 square miles. 

The Population, according to the United States census for 1020, was 314,101, 
and more than 2,000,000 people live within t\vr) hours' ride of the city. 

Streets, Sewers, AVater, Lightingr, Etc. There are more than GOO miles of 
streets and alleys, of which 304 miles are permanently improved and the rest 
graveled. The sewer system embraces over 500 miles of sewers. There are 
450 miles of water mains supplying 28,000,000 gallons every day. The city is 
supplied with artificial gas at 60 cents a thousand feet. It has an unrivaU-d 
street lighting system. 

Tax Kate, Debt and Valuation. The total tax rate, in 1020, for State, county, 
city, school and all other purposes, is $1.00 on each $100 of assessed value. 
The total assessed value of property in the city is $503,512,550. The bonded in- 
debtedness of the city is $4,843,060. 

Commercial and Industrial. The city has over 200 wholesale and jobbing 
houses, representing all lines of trade. It has more than 1,000 factories. It 
is the greatest center foj: tlie manufacture of quartered oak veneer in the 
country, and is the largest producer of hominy in America. In the output 
of automobiles it is second only to Detroit. 

The Grain 3Iarket — Indianapolis is the fourth largest corn marliet in the 
world. The grain receipts for 1010 were: Corn, 10.148-000 bushels: oats, 11,- 
775,000 bushels; wheat, 7,650,000 bushels; rye, 377,000 bushels. There were 
1,036 cars of hay received in this market. The flour mills in Indianapr>lis pro- 
duced 537,841 barrels of flour. 

Banking: and Financial Institutions. The first chartered bank at Indian- 
apolis was the State Bank of Indiana, chartered in 1834. It had its banking 
house after 1840 in the point between Virginia avenue and Pennsylvania street, 
now occupied by the Indiana National Bank. The State Bank of Indiana 
and its successor, the Bank of the State of Indiana, continued until the Civil 
War, when they were forced out of business by the national banking system. 
The first national bank of this city was organized by W. H. English and 
established May 11, 1863. There are now six national banks in Indianapolis 
with total resources of $83,778,452.00; thirteen state banks, resources, $10,213,- 
865.00 and eleven trust companies, resources, $41,077,350.00. The bank clear- 
ings for 1010 amounted to $^10,100,000.00. This does not include the business 
of the state banks not members of the Indianapolis clearing house. 

Insurance Companies. There are eight Indiana stock and mutual fire in- 
surance companies with headquarters in Indianapolis with assets in excess 
of $5,000,000.00, and more than $222,000,000.00 of insurance in force; six Indiana 


stock and mutual life insurance companies with assets in excess of $34,000,000.00 
and more than $230,000,000.00 of insurance in force, also fifteen Indiana com- 
panies engaged in the assessment life, accident, health and miscellaneous 
insurance business. 

Building and Loan Associations. There are 62 associations of this character 
in operation in this city today with a capital of more than $81 ,000. .000 .00 and 
assets in excess of $25,000,000.00. 

Railway Facilities. Indianapolis is the greatest inland railway center in 
che world. Seventeen lines, radiating in all directions, furnish connections 
with every part of the country. By the process of consolidation, part of 
these lines, originally independent, have been taken into "systems" and are 
operated as "divisions." The Pennsylvania company operates 5 of them ; 
the Big Four, 7; the C. I. & W., 2, and the Lake Erie & Western, the Illinois 
Central, and the Monon, one each. Over these lines 86 trains for passengers 
arrive daily, and an equal number depart. The. record of tickets sold shows 
that more than 2,000,000 passengers come into and go out of Indianapolis by 
steam railroad each year. Most of the freight business is handled by the Belt. 
The present Union passenger station was constructed in 1888-9. 

Indianapolis Union Railway Company. This company, controlled by the 
Pennsylvania and Big Four, but giving representation to all the other com- 
panies, operates the Union Station and one mile of tracks connecting with it. 
It also operates the Belt railroad, 14 miles in length, connecting all of the 
lines, outside of the city, under a lease from the Belt Railroad and Stock 
Yards Compan5^ The Belt road is used for switching cars from the numer- 
ous manufactories along it to the several lines, moving about 450.000 cars a 
year. It is also used for taking through freight around the city, instead of 
passing through it. In all, about 1,700.000 freight cars pass over the Belt 
each year. 

Track Elevation. The elimination of grade crossings was begun by the 
elevation of the tracks over Massachusetts avenue in 1005-0; and has con- 
tinued under a law of 1905, which provides that tjae railroads shall pay 75 
per cent of the cost, the remainder being borne by the city, county and the 
Street Railway company, if the latter uses the crossing. The work is done in 
sections to make the annual burden reasonable. The section now in con- 
struction is from Kentucky avenue to East Washington street. It is aimed 
to complete this section in 1920, and the total cost of it is estimated at $8,000,000. 

Belt Railroad & Stock Yard Company. This company, organized in 1877, 
has one of the most important yards for unloading, resting, watering and re- 
shipping stock in the country, which is also an important marketing point. 
Last year the company handled live stock valued at $150,000,000, unloading 
41,921 cars, and loading 24,410. The stock received at the yards last year 
included 2,936,493 hogs, 356,266 cattle, 131,329 sheep, 159,081 calves, of which 
about one-half were reshipped. 

Interurban Railways. In addition to steam railways, fourteen lines of 
electric railways radiate from Indianapolis. Six of these are operated as 
"divisions" by the T. H., I. & E. Traction Co.; five by the Union Traction Co.; 
two by the I. & C, Traction Co., and one by the Interstate Public Service Co. 
These roads connect with the electric lines of the neighboring states, as well 
as outside Indiana lines,, Over 200 cars go in and out of Indianapolis daily 
over these lines, carrying more than eight million people in and out annually, 
and 1,560,000 pounds of freight are carried daily out of the city by the in- 
terurban freight service. The first interurban lines were opened here in 
1900 — one 16 miles to Greenfield, and one 12 miles to Greenwood. 



a' wE. w^. mt^ 

B ^ S^ .@ 'M 


Indianapolis Terminal Station. For use of electric lines entering Indian- 
apolis, was an original idea of Hugh McGowan. It is the greatest station 
of its kind in the world, and was built at a cost of $1,000,000. It furnishes 
facilities for the freight and express traffic of the electric lines, as well as 
their passenger service. 

Street Railway System. The street railways of the city are controlled by 
the Indianapolis Traction and Terminal Co. The lines are all electric, and 
over 170 miles of track are in operation, reaching all sections of the city 
and suburbs. The first street car line was built in 1864, and operated with 
horse cars. The present company took control in 1902, and put the system 
on its present basis. 

Fire Protection. The primary fire protection is the Holly system of high 
pressure water mains, with 3,574 fire hydrants. In addition, the city main- 
tains 31 fire stations, equipped with 11 steam fire engines. 21 hose wagons, 
13 ladder trucks, 2 chemical engines and a water tower. Of this apparatus 
28 are motor vehicles, and 91 horses are used for the remainder. The city 
expends over $500,000 per year for fire protection. In addition there is a 
privately managed Salvage Corps, which gives its attention to saving per- 
sonal property from burning buildings. 


Federal Building. The only United States building within the city limils 
is the U. S. Court House and Postoffice. The postofflce was in private btiihl- 
ings until 18(J0, when the first building put u_p for that purpose, beguit in 
1857, was completed. It cost $165,000, and still stands, being occupied by the 
Fletcher American National Bank. In 1899 Congress appropriated $1,500,000 
for a new building. The block on which it stands was acquired by the 
government in 1900, for $626,000. The plans of the building were opened to 
competition and Eankin & Kellogg, of Philadelphia, were the successful archi- 
tects. The length of the building over all is 355 feet 5 inches, exclusive of 
steps and approaches. The depth over all is 172 feet 6 inches. The height 
over all from sidewalk, is 91 feet. The building was completed in 1904. With 
the exception of the United States weather bureau, the United States army 
recruiting office and the bureau of animal industries, all the offices of the 
government are located in this building. 

The Custom House is a very important adjunct to the trade of the city. 
The value of the goods imported into the district of Indianapolis for tlie 
fiscal year ending 1919 was $868,559; total entries. GG2; duties collected 

Internal Revenue Office. — Wm. L.. Elder was appointed Collector of Internal 
lievenue for the Sixth Indiana District, at the time of the consolida- 
tion of the Sixth and Seventh Indiana Districts, on September 1, 1919. This 
district now comprises the entire State of Indiana, and employs 143 officials. 
Previous to the World War the combined collection of the Sixth and Seventh 
Indiana Districts ranged from $25,178,000 in 1902, to $30,-321,000 in 1913. The 
chief source of revenue during that period was the tax imposed upon intoxi- 
cating liquor, cigars and tobacco. The receipts from intoxicating liquor during 
the last few years have been gradually decreasing, but the revenues from 
other sources, including income, excess profits taxes and special taxes, will 
swell the collections of the fiscal year closing June 30, 1920, to more than 

Fort Benjamin Harrison. This U. S. Army Post, some ten miles northeast 
of the citj% was originally intended for a regiment of regulars. The barracks 



Board of Trade Building. 

aud other buildings were completed in 1907. During the war with Germany 
it was much enlarged, and was an important training camp. 

The State-House is the largest and most imposing structure in the city. 
It is built of Indiana oolitic limestone, the interior being finished in marble. 
It was begun in 1S7S and completed in 1888, at a cost of nearly .$2,000,000. 
and is the only great public building in the country built within the original 
estimate of cost. It is located in the heart of the business section of the city. 
The grounds cover two full blocks, or more than 8 acres. 

Indiana School for the Blind. The central portion of this building is the 
original building, erected in 1S53. The plans were made by John K. Ehler, 
but revised by Francis Costigan, the JNIadison architect, who built the Lauier 
House and other notable structures in that city. Costigan added the steps in 
front of the building, and the cupola. The wings and additional buildings 
are more recent. The property is valued at .$1,000,000. and has accommodations 
for 150 pupils. The purpose of the school is purely educational. All the 
common school branches are taught and a thorough course is given in several 
industrial trades. Tuition, board and washing are furnished by the State: 
clothing and traveling expenses by parents or guardians. The school is open 
to all blind children of suitable capacity between the ages of eight aud 
twenty-one years. Attendance is compulsory for children eight to sixteea 
years of age. There is also a system of industrial aid to the blind, under 
which a l)room shop is maintained on West Twenty-eighth street. 

Indiana State School for the Deaf. This institution, located for over sixty 
years on East Washington street, was removed in 1911 to a tract of 77 acres 
on I'^orty-second street^ east of College avenue. It has 16 dormitories, with 
capacity for 400 inmates, and is well fitted with shops aud other buildings. 


the property being valued at $1,000,000. The school is open to all deaf children 
of suitable capacity between the ages of eight and twenty-one years. Attend- 
ance is compulsory for children from eight to sixteen years of age. All main- 
tenance expenses are paid by the State, but the pupils must be supplied with 
clothing. This institution is not an asylum, but a school and a part of the 
State's educational system,, 

Central Insane Hospital. This institution, opened in 1848 on a small scale, 
has grown to one of the largest of its kind in the United States. It has 160 
acres of land, and 32 buildings, with 746,454 square feet of floor space, or 
nearly 18 acres. It has a pathological laboratory, completely equipped for 
scientific study and investigation. A lecture course for physicians and medical 
students is maintained. The property is valued at over $2,000,000. 

Indiana Woman's Prison. Established by a law of 1869 as The Indiana 
Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls, this institution was opened 
Oct, 4, 1873, receiving all the women who had been in the State Prison at 
Jeffersonville. In 1903 the Legislature provided for the transfer of girls under 
18 years of age to a new institution, to be located outside, but within ten 
miles of Indianapolis. The girls were moved in July, 1907= and the quarters 
thus vacated were remodeled and occupied as the correctional department of 
the Indiana Woman's Prison. This department^ opened February 3. 1908, 
receives women misdemeanants, who would otherwise be sent to county jails. 
If the sentence is ninety days or less it is left to tue discretion of the court 
whether the commitment shall be to the State or to the county institutions. 
The institution is managed solely by women, and is the only strictly penal 
institution in the world so managed. 

Indiana Girls' School. Separated from the Indiana Woman's Prison in 1907, 
the girls under 18 were lodged in the new school, constructed on the cottage 
plan, located on a farm seven and one-half miles northwest of Indianapolis. 
Its postofiice is Clermont. Girls are committed by the courts until they are 
twenty-one years of age, the age limit for commitment being from ten to 
eighteen years. The girls are given thorough courses in school, manual and 
industrial training. They may be released on parole at the discretion of the 
board of trustees subject to supervision by visiting agents. 

The City Hall. The ground was purchased at the northwest corner of 
Alal)ama and Ohio streets October 30, 1907, on. which to erect the City Hall 
building, at a cost of $115,000. Building operations were begun in 1909, and on 
July 27, 1909, the corner-stone was laid. Before the construction of this build- 
ing the city oflices were in rented quarters in different portions of the city. 
For many .vears the city rented rooms for the different offices in the Marion 
County Court House. The l)uilding cost about $700,000 and is one of the most 
important works of the administration of Mayor Charle%s A. Bookwalter. 

The Cit.v Building, on South Alabama street, was erected in 1897. ^ It is of 
oolitic limestone, three stories in height. In it are located the City Court, 
the city clerk's office, the city dispensary and the police department, together 
with the station house, or jail, and the morgue. 

Tomlinson Hall. This is the city's first building by donation. Daniel Tom- 
linson, a public-spirited citizen, left by will a considerable amount of real 
estate and other property to the city, for the erection of a public building 
on the East Market Square. The devise was accepted, but the purpose of 
the testator was not carried out until 1885, when the present building was 
erected. Since then it has been the principal place for holding conventions, 
fairs, concerts and other large public gatherings. 



Traction Terminal Station. 

Marion County Court House is one of the largest and most substantial 
buildings in the city. It is of stone, steel and concrete structure, fire-proof 
except in the mansard roof. It was completed in 1877 at a cost of ?1, 750.000. 
It is ocoapied by the Circuit, Superior and Criminal Courts, the county library, 
I'.ar Association library and olHces of the county clerk, recorder, sheriff, auditor, 
treasurer, assessor, coroner, surveyor and county commissioners. 

County Jail. This was completed in 1892, and is a well-built structure of 
oolitic limestone. It cost $175..000. The sheriff's residence is in the building; 
and it is connected with the Court House by a tunnel. 


City Hospital. The original city hospital was built in 1856, as the result 
of a smallpox scare, and was in a fair way to be abandoned, when the Civil 
War came on and it was taken for a military hospital. Additional frame 
buildings were erected, and it was used as a soldiers' home for a year 
after the war, when it again became the city hospital. The present sontb 
wing was completed in 1885, and the other buildings have been erected since 
that time. The hospital is under a superintendent appointed by the City 
Board of Health. The Indianapolis Training School for Nurses is conducted 
in the hospital. There is a separate hospital for tubercular patients on the 
hospital grounds, and a hosDttal for contagious diseases a few blocks north 
of the grounds. The sick poor are treated free of charge, but pay patients 
are also admitted. 

St. Vincent's Hospital. When the city hospital was a military hospital, 
during the Civil War, four Sisters of Charity — Athanasia, Henrietta. Frances 
Ann, and Helena — volunteered as nurses. These were the corner-stones. 
After the war they opened a hospital in & small house near the rolling mill. 


on South Capitol avenue. From there they moved to a larger house on Georgia 
street; then to a double house on Capitol avenue, where the street car barns 
now stand, and, in 1881, to a building erected for them at Vermont and Liberty 
streets. In 1889 the hospital was removed to the substantial building on 
South street, and in 1913, to the present building on Fall Creek, between 
Illinois and Capitol avenue. This building and the grounds represent an in- 
vestment of $800,000. 

Protestant Deaconefss Hospital. The Protestant Deaconess Society of In- 
dianapolis, organized in January, 1895, at once bought th^ property at Ohio 
and Senate avenue, on which were two frame houses, and opened the hospital 
in them in October pf that year. The present building was occupied in 1908. 
The cost of buildings and grounds was about $300,000. 

Methodist Episcopal Hospital. This institution, at Sixteenth and Capitol 
avenue, originated in a surplus fund of $4,000 at the Epworth League Inter- 
national Conference, at Indianapolis, in 1889. The fund grew gradually until 
the hospital was opened in 1908. The total investment is $650,000. It has 
the backing of all the Methodist organizations of the State. 

Robert W. L,ong Hospital. This large and finely equipped hospital, dedi- 
cated June 15, 1914, is in the nature of a State institution, and is the result 
of a generous gift from Dr. Robert W. Long and wife. The building was 
erected at a cost of $250,000. It is managed by the Indiana University School 
of Medicine. 

St. Francis Hospital. This hospital, at Beech Grove, was opened in 1915, 
and cost $180,000. 

Orphan Asylums. The Indianapolis Orphan Asylum, originally incorporated 
in 1851, and now located on East Washington street, is in charge of an organ- 
ization of charitable ladies of the city. The Germans have two separate 
orphanages, the General Protestant Orphans' Home and the- Lutheran Orphans' 
Home. There is also a Home for Friendless Colored Children. 

Other Charities. There are a number of charitable institutions in the city, 
including homes for aged people, rescue mission, and refuges for unfortunates 
of various kinds. The general charity work of the city is consolidated under 
one society, known as The Charity Organization, which has its offices in the 
Baldwin block, at Delaware and Market streets. 


Public Schools. The school city of Indianapolis is a separate corporation, 
managed by a board elected by the people, and levying its own taxes. There 
are 73 graded schools and 3 high schools. Vocational training is given in 
all the schools, and two of the high schools — Manual Training and Technical— 
specialize in this line. The public school property is valued at over $6,000,000. 

Free Kindergartens. The public school system is supplemented by the work 
of the Indianapolis Free Kindergarten and Children's Aid Society, which has 
43 kindergartens in various parts of the city. They are supported by a tax 
of two cents on each $100. Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker is superintendent. The offices 
are at Alabama and Twenty-third streets. 

Teachers' College. To some extent connected with the kindergarten work 
is the Teachers' College, for the training of teachers. It gives courses of 
two to four years, to graduates of high schools, with the special object of 
fitting them for teachers. Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker is president. 




Masonic Temple. 

Private Schools. In addition to the public schools there are 23 Catholic 
and Lutheran parochial schools, and one Hebrew school. There are also half- 
a-dozen schools under private management, both for boys and for girls, that 
maintain high standing. 

Herron Art Institute. The handsome building and fine art galleries of 
this institution were made possible by a bequest of John Herron, which is 
supplemented by donations and service from other public-spirited citizens. It 
maintains an art school, for instruction in various departments of fine arts, 
which is partly supported by the city, and which is closely related with the 
public schools. 

City l.ibrary. The city public library was established in 1873, as an adjunct 
of the public schools, and is controlled by the Board of School Commissioners. 
The central library, on St. Clair street between Meridian and Pennsylvania, 
was erected at a cost of $510,000, and was occupied on Oct. 17, 1917. It stands 
on grounds partially donated by James Whitcomb Riley. The reading room 
is open from 9 a. m. to 9 p. m. on week days, and from 2 to 9 p., m. on 
Sundays. There are 14 branch libraries, in various parts of the city, each 
supplied with from 1,500 to 5,000 volumes, and newspapers and magazines, 
and having reading room facilities. Five of these are housed in special 
Carnegie buildings. The Bona Thompson Memorial library, at Irvington, 
is one of the branches. A special Business Branch for the use of business 
men, is maintained in the old library building, at Meridian and Ohio streets, 
and is open from 8:30 a. m. to 6 p. m. There are 220,000 volumes in the 
library. Any citizen may withdraw books for home use. For convenience in 
this, there are more than 50 delivery stations, in addition to the central and 
branch libraries, where books may be obtained and returned. 




Y. W. C. A. Building. 

Other liibraries. The State library goes back to the beginning of the State, 
but it was poorly supported until 1889. when the Indiana Historical Society 
secured larger appropriations, and put it on the up grade. It occupies the 
south front of the second floor of the State House, and has over 70.000 volumes. 
It is especially valuable as a reference library for history, economics and 
public documents. The Marion County library is located in the Court House. 
It has over 5,000 volumes. It is open only on Saturdays, and is free to all 
citizens of the county. The State Law library, otherwise known as the Su- 
preme Court library, was originally part of the State library, but was separated 
from it in 1867. It has over 40,000 volumes of legal publications. There are 
a number of partially public libraries connected with various institutions 
and schools in the city. 

Butler College. This — historically the college of the city — was incorporated 
in 1850 as Northwestern Christian University, and a handsome building was 
erected at Fourteenth street and College avenue. In 1873 it was removed to 
its present location in Irvington. In 1877, in recognition of large gifts from 
Ovid Butler, the present name was adopted. The grounds include over 25 
acres, and there are six substantial buildings, besides the astronomical ob- 
servatory. Notable among the buildings are that of the Bona Thompson 
Memorial library and the Sarah Davis Deterding Missionary Training School. 
The latter, as the name implies, is specially devoted to training for foreign 
and home mission work. From the start Northwestern set an example to 
the world by admitting women on equal terms with men. Butler maintains 
a high collegiate standard, and while under Christian church management, is 
open to all. The president is Prof. Thos. C. Howe. 

Indiana University School of Medicine. This medical college on the R. W. 
Long hospital grounds, representing a consolidation of several medical 



Y. M. C. A. Building. 

schools of the State, was adopted by the State University as its school of 
medicine in 1908. In addition to a full course of medical and surgical in- 
struction, the college has charge of the Robert W. Long Hospital and the 
City Dispensary, ^in the City Building. It also conducts the Bobbs Free Dis- 
pensary, established by a bequest from Dr. John S. Bobbs, in the college 
building. It conducts clinics in all the hospitals of the city. The dean of 
the college is Dr. Chas. P. Emerson. 

Indiana Central University was incorporated October 6. 1902. It is con- 
ducted by the United Brethren Church of Indiana. The building and campus 
at University Heights, a mile south of the city, were donated to the institution 
by Wm. L. Elder of Indianapolis. 

Indiana Law School. This school, organized in 1894, is the result of generous 
service by Indianapolis lawyers, who have acted as its professors and lec- 
turers. The various courts and law libraries of the city furnish exceptional 
opportunities for study. The dean is James A. Rohbach. 

Indiana Dental College. This school was established in 1879. It gives prac- 
tice training, as well as instruction. Women are admitted on the same terms 
as men. The dean is Frederic R. Henshaw. The course is four years of 
eight months. 

The Indiana Veterinary College was chartered in 1892. The college owns 
its own building, laboratories and equipment and occupies the quarter square 
at the northeast intersection of Market and Davidson streets. The course com- 
prises veterinary science in all its branches. The requirement for entrance is 
four years in a commissioned high school. The course covers a term of four 
sessions of eight months each. The college is under the supervision of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. W. B. Craig is Dean. 

Indianapolis College of Pharmacy. Was organized in 1904 as a department 
of Winona Technical Institute, and later reorganized as a stock company. 
Its course is two years of six months each. The secretary is Edward H. Niles. 



Maennerchcr Building (Academy of Music) 


The Indianapolis Board of Trade. The building of the Board of Trade, at 
Meridian and Ohio streets, is headquarters for the grain trade of the city. 
There is a grain call at noon of each business day. The board is the successor 
of the old Chamber of Commerce, and was organized June 12, 1882. Its mem- 
bership of over 500 includes many professional men as well as business men. 

The Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce. This was organized in 1912. It is 
the result of a consolidation of the Indianapolis Commercial Club, the In- 
dianapolis Trade Association, the Indianapolis Freight Bureau, the Manu- 
facturers' Association and the Adscript Club., Later the Convention and Tour- 
ists' Bureau was absorbed. It owns the eight-story building at Meridian and 
Pearl streets, and occupies the upper four stories, being devoted to social and 
club activities as well as civic welfare. 

The Propylaeum, on North street, west of Pennsylvania, is a woman's en- 
terprise. It was erected in 1888-9, and is devoted to the promotion of literary, 
social and general culture. 

The Academy of Music. This building, at Illinois and Michigan streets, is 
the home of the Indianapolis Maennerchor, the oldest German organization of 
the city, inaugurated in 1854. The objects of the organization are musical 
and social. 

The Columbia Club. This club, whose building is in Monument Place, is the 
oldest and most widely known political club of the city. The building was 
dedicated New Year's Eve, 1900. It is Republican, but also social to an extent 
precluding extreme partisanship. 

The Indiana Democratic Club. This clubhouse, on Vermont street, opposite 
University Park, is a stronghold of Democracy, with social features. 


German House (Athenaeum) 

The Marion Club, whose building is on Meridian street, opposite the Federal 
Building, is a Republican club, which makes politics its chief end. It is fully 
supplied with social accommodations. 

The Athenaeum. This building, at New Jersey and Michigan streets, was 
known as Das Deutsche Haus until the late war. It was built by Der Deutsche 
Klub, the east wing in 1894, and the west in 1898. In 1899 this club consoli- 
dated with the Musikverein. In addition to social and musical features, the 
club maintains a Sunday school, a kindergarten, and a girls' industrial soh »o]. 
The Normal College of the American Gymnastic Union is located in the build- 

The Independent Athletic Club. This is the home of the Ind ;>endent Turn- 
verein, organized in 1879. The building at Pratt and Meridi.i.i streets was 
erected in 1897, and took the place of the former ciuarters at Illinois and 
Ohio streets. It is devoted to social and athletic culture. 

Y. M. C. A. Building. This fine edifice at Illinois and New York streets, 
was the result of a public subscription of S2.50.00O in 1W7, in recognition of 
the work of the Association, which was organized in Indianapolis in 1854. In 
addition to equipment for moral and educational work, the building has a 
fine gymnasium, swimming pool, baths, dining room, and other social at- 

y. W. C. A. Building. Immediately after the subscription for the Y'. M. C. A. 

$140,000 was raised for a building for "the girls." and it was erected on 
Pennsylvania street east of University Park. It is fully equipped with ac- 
commodations for teaching, gymnasium, swimming pool, apartments and din- 
ing room for young women, and other desirable features. 




Independent Turnverein (Independent Athletic Club) 

Colored Y. M. C. A. Building:. This building, at Senate avenue and Michigan 
streets, was erected in 1913 by a public subscription, of $100,000. It serves 
all the purposes for the colored population that the^*Y.-M. C. A. building 
serves for the white population. *■ 

Masonic Temple, at Illinois and North streets, erects in 1908, is the third 
temple building of the order in the city; The two preceding, the first com- 
pleted in 1851, and the second in 1877, stood on the southeast corner of Capitol 
and Washington. The present building, of oolitic limestone, attracts much 
notice by its monumental architecture. 

The Odd FeUows' Buildingr, at Washington and Pennsylvania streets, occu- 
pies the site of the former building of the. order, erected in 1856, and torn 
down in 1907 The twelfth floor is occupied by Grand Lodge offices, and on 
the thirteenth floor is an auditorum seating 1,500 persons. 

Indiana Pythian Building. This, sometimes called "the flatiron," is at Massa- 
chusetts avenue and Pennsylvania. It is the home of the Knights of Pythias 
and was dedicated Aug. 14^ 1907. 

Murat Temple. Refuge of the Mystic Shrine, is the unique building at 
Michigan and New Jersey streets. It contains one of the finest theaters in 
the United States, which was opened on Feb. 28, 1910. 

The University Club. This is the only club in Indianapolis for purely 
social purposes that maintains a building of its own. It is nominally re- 
stricted to college men. The building is at Meridian and Michigan. 

The Canoe Club. This club, wholly for recreation, has a fine clubhouse on 
White river, opposite Riverside Park. 

The Knights of Columbus have their clubhouse at the corner of Delaware 
and Thirteenth — formerly the home of Hugh McGowan. 



NDIANAFOLIS wan not a product of chanc«. When Indiana 
was admitted to tho Union, in 1810. CongresH adopted a tpko- 
lutlon donating four sections of land to the State, on whir-h 
to ostablisli its capital. At that time the white population of 
Indiana, numbering about 05,0(J0. was located in the southern 
third of the State, the central and northern thirds being held 
by the Indians. The four sections donated were to be located 
in tliese Indian lands, when the title to them was acquired. 

Tlie Indians relinquished their title to the central part of the State by the 
treaty of St. Mary's in October, 1818; and the large tract of land then ob- 
tained from them was thenceforth linown as The New Purchase. On January 
IL 1820^ the Legislature adopted a law for the appointment by the Governor 
of ten commissioners who should select the four sections of the donation 
Governor Jennings appointed George Hunt of Wayne County; .Tohn Conner 
of Fayette; Stephen Ludlow, of Dearborn; John Gilliland. of Switzerland' 
Joseph Bartholomew, of Clarlj; John Tipton, of Harrison; Jesse B. Durham' 
of Jackson; Fredericic Rapp, of Posey; William Prince of Gibgon. and 
Thomas Emmerson, of Knox. All of them, except William Prince, accepted 
the appointment and served. Governor Jennings also joined the commission- 
ers, and remained with them until the site of the capital was finally selected 
They assembled at "the house of William Conner, on the West Fork of White 
Kiver." on May 22. 1820, as provided by the law, and organized for their 
work by electing Hunt, chairman, and Benjamin I. Blythe. clerk. 

The Location Chosen. It was understood that the capital would be located 
on the west Fork of White River, as it was the only navigable stream in the 
central part of the state. Three points on the river were considered: Con- 
ner's Station, about four miles below Noblesville; the mouth of Fall Creek 
and the Bluffs, near Waverly. After careful examination of the region, the 
mouth of Fall Creek was chosen. The Delaware Indians called Fall Creek 
"Sok-pe-hel-luk" (i. e. Waterfall), referring to the falls at Pendleton, which 
were the only ones in central Indiana; and the Miamls called it "Chank-tun- 
oon-gi" (i. e. Makes a Noise Place), referring to the same falls. The mouth 
of the creek had the same names; and the Miamis still call Indianapolis 
**Chank-tun-oon-gi." At that time the mouth of the creek was onlv a short 
distance above Washington street. The present mouth was made by cutting 
a new channel for the creek along Tenth street, in 1875, and building a levee 
on its south bank. 

There were several reasons for choosing this location, among others that 
the river banks afforded a good boat landing, that there was ample high and 
level ground for the city, and that Fall Creek and Eagle Creek were good 
mill streams. Another important consideration was that at the point where 
Washington street now crosses the river there were high banks on both 
sides of the stream, "insuring in times of high water a certain passage-" 
while for thirty miles below, and ten miles above there were bottom lands 
on one or both sides. At that time the National Road had been located on 
a line that would have thrown it about eighteen miles south of Indianapolis 
but It was later changed on account of this favorable crossing. 

The lands selected included 2,357.93 acres east of the river, bounded on 
the north by Tenth street, on the south by Morris street, and on the east 
i-y the line of Shelby street. Also, west of the river. 202.07 acres bounded 


on tbe north by Vermont street, on the south by Maryland street, and on 
the west by Lynn street. The final selection was made on June 7. 1820, at 
the cabin of John McCormick, which stood in the triangle now made by 
Washington street, Washington avenue and White River, fronting the river. 

The First Settlers. In addition to the families of John McCormick and 
his brother James, there were a dozen other families living in the imme- 
diate vicinity at the time when the commissioners located the donation. 
Among these were those of George Pogue; of John Maxwell, and John 
Cowan, who came early in March, 1820, and located near the present City 
Hospital; of Robert Barnhill and his son-in-law, Jeremiah Corbaley. who 
arrived on March 6 and located on Fall Creek, above Indiana avenue; of 
Isaac Wilson, who came on April 6 and located on what is now the State 
House square, building the first house on the original town plat; Henry 
and Samuel Davis, chair-makers, who located in the Fall Creek bottoms, 
near Walnut street; the widow Harding and her married son, Robert Harding, 
who located near John McCormick's. and probably two or three others, whose 
names are not preserved, 

Richard Corbaley, son of Jeremiah, born August 7. 1820, was the first 
white child born in Marion County. Mordecai Harding, second son of Robert, 
was the first child born on the donation tract, and James Morrow, son of 
Samuel Morrow, was the first child born on the original town plat. 

The most notable historical dispute in connection with the settlement is 
whether the Pogues or the McCormicks were the first arrivals. The Pogues 
claim that George Pogue, with his wife and five children, left Connersville 
in February, 1819, and arrived here on March 2 of that year. The McCormicks 
claim that John McCormick and family, accompanied by his two brothers, 
James and Samuel, and nine employees who served as axmen and teamsters, 
left Connersville in February, 1820, following Whetzell's trace to a point 
near Rushville, from which they cut a road to the mouth of Fall Creek, 
arriving there on February 26; and that the Pogues arrived on March 2, 1820. 
The McCormicks say that the Pogue cabin, which stood on the premises 
now known as 420 Highland avenue, was built in 1819. but that it was built 
by Ute Perkins, of Rush County, who abandoned it; and that the Pogues 
moved into it., This story is also held by the Perkins family. 

Indianapolis historians are divided as to these claims. The Pogue claim 
has been adopted by Ignatius Brown, W. H. Holloway, Berry Sulgrove and 
Judge D. W. Howe; while the McCormick claim has been championed by 
J H B. Nowland and J. P. Dunn. Mr, Dunn's discussion is the latest and 
fullest formal discussion of the subject. Since its publication, the files 
of the first newspaper published in Indianapolis— T|ie Indianapolis Gazette— 
which had been lost, have been resurrected, and in the spring of 1822 this 
paper published a series of articles by Dr. S. G. Mitchell, of Indianapolis, 
entitled "Manuscript Historical Notes on Indiana." in which, on March b. 
the following statement is made: 

"The County of Marion, at this time, is supposed to contain upwards of 
two thousand souls. Indianapolis, including the donation, is supposed to 
furnish half of that number. A rapid population when we take into con- 
sideration that the first settlements commenced on this part of the river 
in February, 1820. Samuel and James McCormick put up a cabin immediately 
below the mouth of Fall Creek, on the river bank. In March Messrs. Harden, 
Wilson, Maxwell, Cowin and Pogue made improvements in and near this 
place, which settlement was about this time followed by a number of other 
enterprising citizens." No denial of this statement was made at the time. 

The New Capital. The action of the commissioners was reported to the 
Legislature, which, on January 6. 1821. ratified the selection and provided 



Emrichsville Bridge over White River. 

The Country Club. This club, organized in 1891. has a large and well- 
appointed establishment on the Crawfordsville road. 8 miles west of the city. 
It removed to this location in 1914. 

Woodstock. This name is given to the former establishment of the Country 
Club at Northwestern avenue and Thirty-eighth street, which is now occupied 
by another and similar club. 

Other Clubs. There are a number of other buildings occupied by fraternal 
organizations in various parts of the city. The Elks are engaged in a cam- 
paign for a new building on their present grounds opposite University Park. 


State Parks. Indianapolis has always had three parks which are State 
property, though they were not always used as parks. Of these the largest 
is Military Park, originally called "the Military Reservation," lying west of 
West street, and north of the Canal, and including 14 acres. The other 
two are University Square (or Park), and St. Clair Park. The city began 
its park system in 1805, under Mayor Thomas Taggart. when it made its 
first large park purchases. It now has 25 parks, with a combined area of 
1,901 acres. These are, to a large extent, connected by a boulevard system of 
about 25 miles. The park property is valued at $5,000,000. Playgrounds for 
children are features of the parks where practicable, and the larger ones are 
furnished with shelter houses, golf links and athletic fields. 

Riverside Park. This is the largest of the parks, containing 950 acres. It 
is located on White river, in the northwestern part of the city, and is the 
only park that has boating facilities. The zoological gardens and fish hatch- 
ery are special attractions. 



Race Track at Fair Grounds. 

Brooksitle Park. This beautiful tract of 82 acres lies in the northeastern 
part of the city. It was purchased at the same time as Riverside, the total 
then paid for Riverside, Brookside, Highland Square and Indianola Square, 
being $386,500. 

Garfield Park. The greater part of this has belonged to the city since 1874, 
but was little used until enlarged and improved after 1895. It now embraces 
about 108 acres. One of its attractions is its "sunken gardens." It is located 
in the southeastern part of the city. 

EUenberger Park. This is the last purchased of the larger parks. It lies 
north of Irvington, and has 41 acres, a fine tract of native woodland, formerly 
known as "the EUenberger woods." 

Other City Parks. The remaining parks are comparatively small. They are 
scattered in various parts of the city, and are designed for "breathing spaces' 
for the public. 

Fairview Park. This popular outing place does not belong to the city, but 
to the Street Railway Company. It is on the canal, some seven miles north 
of the city, and is a beautiful tract of about 200 acres. The Summer Mission 
for Sick Children is located here. 

The Indiana State Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. Indianapolis has the 
proud distinction of containing the first monument ever erected directly in 
honor of the private soldier. It is also one of the few real works of art in 
this line to be found in America. It is not a plain and unsightly shaft 
like that on Bunker Hill or in Washington City, but is a beautiful obelisk 
of artistic design. It was designed in competition, by Bruno Schmitz. the 
Prussian Royal Architect, It was built by the State pursuant to a law of 
1887. The cost was in excess of $500,000, including a small fund collected 



The Aqueduct over Fall Creek. 

by the G. A. H., which inaugurated the enterprise, aud induced the State 
to finish it. It was dedicated witli fitting ceremonies, attended by thousands 
of citizens from all parts of the State, May 15, 1002. It is constructed of 
Indiana oolitic limestone. The park in which it stands has an area of 3J2 
acres, and lies at the intersection of Meridian and Market streets. The monu- 
ment, including the crowning figure, is 281i feet in height. The top of the 
monument is reached by an elevator and stairway from the base of the in- 
terior of the shaft. A magnificent view of the city of Indianapolis and the 
surrounding country is obtained from the top of the monument. In the 
basement of the monument is a valuable museum of war relics and pictures, 
collected by Col. Gran Perry, the custodian of the monument. Around the 
monument are four statues commemorating the four wars originally represented 
by the monument. 

Ceorge Rogers Clark Statue, to the northwest of the monument, is for the 
Revolutionary war. It represents Clark emerging from the last stretch of 
Avater through which his little army marched to capture Vincennes from the 
British. It was designed by John H. Mahoney. native sculptor of Indiana. 

William Henry Harrison Statue, to the northeast, represents the War of 
1812, and the Battle of Tippecanoe, in which Harrison, Governor of Indiana 
Territory and later President of the United States, was commander. This 
statue was designed by John H. Mahoney. ^' 

James Whitcomb Statue. This stands to the southwest, and commemorates 
the Mexican War, Whitcomb having been Governor of Indiana during that 
war. This also was designed by John H. Mahoney. It is interesting that 
just east of Monument Place, on the front of the Franklin Life Insurance 
building, is a marble statue of Benjamin Franklin, executed by Mahoney when 
he was only a marble cutter, and which was his first step in art work. 


Oliver P. Morton Statue. This represents the Civil War. and is older thf 
the monument. It was made by Franklin Simmons, of Rome, Italy, for t. 
Morton Memorial Association, and stood In the center of the Circle unt. 
removed to make place for the monument. 

Thomas A. Hendricks Monument. On the State House grounds are tw 
monuments, the one at the southeast corner being to Thomas A. Hendrick; 
Governor and Senator, and Vice-President of the United States. It was erectf 
by popular subscription, and unveiled in 180(1. The height of the enti 
monument is 38i feet, the heroic statue of Hendricks being 14* feet. Th( 
pedestal is of Bavano granite from the quarries at Lake Maggiore, Italy. A 
the base are allegorical figures of "History" and "Peace." The monumem 
was designed by R. H. Parks, of Florence, Italy. 

Monument to Governor Morton, at the east entrance to the State House 
was unveiled .Tuly 23, 1907. By the efforts of the G. A. R. the Legislatur( 
of 1905 was induced to appropriate $35,000 for this tribute to the memor: 
of Indiana's "War Governor." The monument was designed by Rudolpl 
Schwartz, a German sculptor sent here by Bruno Schmitz to execute thi 
"War" and "Peace" groups on the Soldiers' and Sailors' monument. 

Scliuyler Colfax Statue. At the north side of University Park stands thii 
statue of the first citizen of Indiana who served as Vice-President of thfi 
United States, and who had served three terms as speaker of the nationa 
House of Representatives. He was a prominent Odd Fellow, ami was thi 
author of the Rebekah degree for women, adopted in 1851-2. This statue w.u 
erected by the Daughters of Rebekah in 1887. It was designed by Loradoi 
Taft, of Chicago. 

Gen. L<awton Statue. This tribute to Gen. Henry W. Lawton, of the reguia ' 
army, who fell in battle in the Philippines in 1899, originally stood on the! 
Court House square, but was removed to Garfield Park in 1915. It was uii- 
veiled May 30, 1907, President Roosevelt attending the ceremonies. It wa.s 
designed by Daniel French, of New York, and modeled by Andrew O'Conner, 
but was cast at Paris, France, and exhibited there before it was erected i'^, 

Benjamin Harrison Monument. This work, erected by the Benjamin Harris 
Monument Association, and unveiled in October, 1908, is a tribute to an honor 
resident of Indianapolis, and the only President of the United States elect- 
from Indiana. It was designed by Chas. H. Niehaus. of New York, It stani . 
on the south side of University Park, fronting the Federal building. 

Depew Memorial Fountain. This fountain, at the corner of UniversityJP^-k 
is the result of a bequest to the city of $50,000, by Dr. Richard Depew. t 
was decided to erect a memorial fountain, and the design was awarded t 
Karl Bitter, of New I'^ork, on competition. Bitter died soon afterwards, ar 
his design was executed by J. Stirling Calder, of New York. The fount* 'j 

was dedicated Sept. 13, 1919. 1 


Hotels. The first modern hotel in Indianapolis was the Bates House, bb 
in 1852, though there were numerous inns, taverns, and even hotels of ve 
good repute before it. It was torn down in 1901 to make place for the Cla 
pool. There are more than seventy hotels in the city, among the larger bein , 
the Severin, the Claypool, the Washington, the English, the Denison the Lin 
coin, the Linden and the Majestic. Eating houses, tea rooms and cafeterias 
are plentiful and widely distributed. 

The Speedway. The Motor Speedway has given much advertisement to 
Indianapolis as an automobile racing center. It has 328 acres of land, and a 
track 2^ miles long, paved with vitrified brick, and banked up 16 feet ort 
the turns. Here the first 500-mile automobile race in the world was staged in 
1911, and similar races have followed each year. 1 

The State Fair. The Indiana State Fair is held annually at Indianapolis^ 
on a tract of 214 acres northeast of the city. The grounds are supplied w: 
commodious buildings, including a fine coliseum which was erected in 190'. . 
One of the special attractions is a race track for horses that is considered 




.ters. Indianapolis is well supplied with theaters, the lareer ones belne 
irat, English's, the Circle. Keith's (formerly the Oran.l) the Colon «f 
Jestic the Park. Motion pictures houses are numerous? arid to be found 
riy all parts of the city. The first distinctive theater Jniilding In th« 
as the Metropolitan, opened In 1858. Its place Is now occupied by 

ary Landmarks. The home of James Whitcomb Riley has been Dur- 
wi(h a view of making it a memorial of him In Lockerbie street which 
d so well. The old Vandegrift Ijlock— the childhood home of Mrs Rob- 
lis Stevenson (Fanny Vandegrift)— still stands at the southwest corner 
ilgan and Illinois streets, but in a rather forlorn condition The child- 
aunts of Gen. Lew Wallace have disappeared, but he left a monument 
own in the Blacherne, which was the first large apartment building 

teries. The principal cemetery of the city is Crown Hill which wa» 
ed in 18G4. It is in the northwestern part of the city, and covers more 
a- res. There are half-a-dozen special cemeteries of various relieiouM 
nations. e^^u. 

Old State Capitol, 1854. 

The Capital— "Indianapolis" 

"Adorned with cultivation's countless charms; 
Orchards and gardens perfume every gale; 
The sounds of busy, merry life prevail; 
Afar, around, on every lovely height, 
The quiet homestead rises on the sight; 
And towers the dome, each honest Hoosier's pride. 
Upon its own romantic river's side. 
Where 'legislation's sovereign powers' abide. 
Shrined in our famous capital, whose name 
Reflects that of the State and crowns her fame." 

—From the Poem "Indiana," by Isaac H. Julian. 

Ohen pusKed iKe mailed wood aside, 
TKei] ioss'd IKe forest like a {q^. 
Thai qrand iorqoiten race of men. 
TKe boldest band tkai qei has been 
Toqeihei smce ibe sieqe of Ttoi^.